Japan’s largest semiconductor manufacturer: Toshiba Corporation (TOSYY) (1875)

Toshiba Corporation (Japanese: Toshiba Co., Ltd. / かぶしきがいしゃとうしば) (OTC MKTS: TOSYY, Toshiba Division 1: 6502, LSE: TOS) was founded in 1875 and is headquartered in Tokyo, Japan, with 198,741 full-time employees , Is Japan’s largest semiconductor manufacturer and the holding parent company of Westinghouse Electric, one of the largest nuclear power companies in the United States .

Toshiba Corporation Logo

Toshiba Corporation (TOSYY):

Toshiba was formed by the merger of two Japanese companies in 1939.

The first company was an industrial manufacturing company founded by Tanaka Hisashige in Tokyo in 1875. In 1882, Tanaka Hisashige’s heir, Tanaka Daikichi, named it Tanaka Manufacturing Co., Ltd., and then established Shibaura Manufacturing Co., Ltd. on this basis in 1904. At the beginning of the 20th century, Shibaura Manufacturing was mainly engaged in the supply of heavy-duty electromechanical manufacturing in Japan, and gradually grew into a well-known industrial manufacturer.

The second company, formerly known as Shirisha, was founded in Tokyo in 1890 by Ichisuke Fujioka and Masaichi Miyoshi. It was the first company in Japan to produce incandescent light bulbs. After that, Baireshe began to produce various consumer electronics products. In 1899, Bairesha changed its name to Tokyo Electric.

In 1939, Tokyo Electric and Shibaura Manufacturing Co., Ltd. formally merged to form today’s Toshiba. The new names are the beginning of the two companies. The English name is also combined according to the Japanese pinyin; To represents the pronunciation of Japanese East, and Shiba represents the pronunciation of Shiba. However, it was not until 1984 that the company officially started using Toshiba’s new brand name.

Toshiba expanded rapidly through the acquisition of other companies. In the 1940s and 1950s, Toshiba purchased many heavy machinery manufacturers and industrial-related companies. However, after the 1970s, Toshiba began to establish subsidiaries to separate the acquired companies from the core industries. These subsidiaries include: Toshiba EMI (1960), Toshiba Electronic Equipment (1974), Toshiba Chemical (1974), Toshiba Lighting Technology (1989), Toshiba American Information Systems (1989) and Toshiba Handling Equipment (1999) ).

Toshiba was Japan’s first manufacturer in many products, such as: radar (1942), transistor TVs and microwave ovens (1959), color video phones (1971), Japanese word processors (1978), notebook computers ( In 1986, it was also the world’s first), DVD (1995), HD DVD (2005).

In 1987, Toshiba Machinery, a subsidiary of Toshiba, was accused of illegally selling precision multi-axis processing machines that can be used to manufacture propellers, as well as numerical controllers and software to the Soviet military, supplying them with very quiet submarines. This transaction violates the CoCom agreement during the Cold War. The relationship between the United States and Japan was also frustrated by this incident. In the end, two senior managers of Toshiba were prosecuted and arrested, and Toshiba was fined by both countries.

In 1991, Toshiba established its first overseas R&D center, the Cambridge Research Laboratory, to conduct basic research in the field of low-dimensional semiconductor devices. Now the laboratory has three research groups: Quantum Information Group, which mainly studies the application of quantum physics in information technology; Speech Technology Group, established in 2002, with the development of speech recognition and synthesis systems as the main research and development project; Computer Vision Group , Established in 2006, the focus of research is to model three-dimensional shapes from image and gesture recognition. In 1998, the Communication Technology Research Laboratory was established in Bristol, England, and merged with the Cambridge Research Laboratory into Toshiba Research Europe Limited.

In 2001, Toshiba acquired Orion Electronics and became the world’s largest video-related electronic product foundry and component supplier. Toshiba manufactures consumer TV and VCR products, occupying the North American market.

In January 2005, Toshiba announced that it would stop producing traditional picture tube TVs. Toshiba ended production of plasma TVs in 2006. As Toshiba’s largest foundry, Orion took over the technical specifications of Toshiba’s CRT and plasma TVs and sold them under its own brand (Orion). In order to strengthen Toshiba’s future competitiveness in digital thin TVs, they have invested considerable funds in SED display technology.

Before World War II, Toshiba was a member of the Mitsui chaebol. Today’s Toshiba belongs to the Mitsui series (loose group organization). Toshiba maintains a priority cooperative relationship with the companies in the series, such as Mitsui Banking Corporation . However, compared with the close ties between companies in the Mitsubishi Group , Toshiba and Toyota Motor , another major company in the Mitsui series, retain considerable freedom.

In July 2005, British Nuclear Fuels (British Nuclear Fuels) decided to Westinghouse (Westinghouse) sale, estimated price of $ 1.8 billion. This sale plan has attracted the attention of many manufacturers, including Toshiba, General Electric and Mitsubishi Heavy Industries . The final result was that Toshiba bought Westinghouse for $5 billion in January 2006. This sale has aroused many discussions; many experts believe that when the world’s energy demand continues to increase, especially large countries such as China, the United States, and the United Kingdom are expected to increase their investment in nuclear power generation, the British Nuclear Fuel Company will make the world’s largest nuclear reactor The manufacturer sold, they thought it was not a wise move to sell Westinghouse.

Toshiba is an important member of chip manufacturers in the world. In the 1980s, Toshiba and NEC were the two largest semiconductor manufacturers in the world. Since the 1990s, Toshiba has been the top 5 chip factory in the world. Toshiba ranked fourth in 2005, second only to Intel, Samsung Electronics, and Texas Instruments, but ahead of STMicroelectronics.

In February 2009, Toshiba acquired Fujitsu’s hard disk division.

On March 17, 2010, Toshiba announced that its lighting technology company would stop producing 120-year-old traditional incandescent light bulbs. In the afternoon, the factory in Kanuma City, Tochigi Prefecture held a production suspension ceremony. To comply with the Japanese government’s policy of replacing incandescent lamps.

August 31, 2011 , Sony (Sony), Toshiba (Toshiba) and Hitachi after (Hitachi) will be its sluggish performance LCD business spun off, and the government-backed fund jointly set up joint venture company to create Japan Display dream team, Japan Display will Surpass Sharp and become the world’s largest manufacturer of small and medium-sized LCD screens specializing in the mobile phone and tablet computer market.

The Japanese government holds 90% of the Japanese investment fund Innovation Network Company (INCJ), and invested 200 billion yen (approximately 2.609 billion US dollars) in Japan Display. This is the largest investment since the fund was established in 2009 and holds 70% of the company’s equity. The remaining 30% is divided equally among the three companies.

On April 3, 2012, Fujitsu acquired the remaining 19.9% ​​shares of Fujitsu Toshiba Mobile Communications from Toshiba, becoming a wholly-owned enterprise, and has officially changed the company name to Fujitsu Mobile Communications Limited (Fujitsu Mobile Communications Limited) on April 1. ).

In July 2015, Toshiba broke out a scandal of false accounting, which exceeded US$1 billion; on the 21st, President Hisao Tanaka resigned.

On July 22, 2015, Toshiba’s elevator business sold nearly 24 million shares of KONE for a total price of 864.7 million euros (US$945 million), equivalent to 4.6% of KONE’s common stock.

On March 15, 2016, Midea Group of China acquired an 80.1% stake in Toshiba’s home appliance business main body “Toshiba Life Electric Co., Ltd.” for approximately 53.7 billion yen (approximately US$477 million). At the same time, Midea will also obtain 40-year global authorization of the Toshiba brand, more than 5,000 technical patents related to white goods (referring to appliances that help housework such as refrigerators, washing machines, etc.), and the market, channels and manufacturing of Toshiba home appliances in Japan, China, and Southeast Asia. base.

On April 10, 2017, Toshiba suffered a huge loss in its nuclear power business in the United States. It is expected to have a net loss of 1.01 trillion yen (approximately US$9.1 billion) for the 2016 fiscal year. Toshiba, which has a history of 142 years, also warned for the first time that it was not sure whether it would continue to operate smoothly, instead of filing for bankruptcy.

On April 10, 2017, the Wall Street Journal quoted people familiar with the matter as saying that Taiwan’s Foxconn told Toshiba that it was ready to acquire Toshiba’s computer chip (semiconductor) business for a maximum of 3 trillion yen (US$27 billion). Analysts estimate that the fair value of Toshiba’s chip business is between 1.5 trillion yen and 2 trillion yen. A person familiar with the matter said that in the preliminary bid at the end of March, the highest bidder except Foxconn offered about 2 trillion yen.

On September 20, 2017, Toshiba decided to sell its chip business to a consortium composed of Bain Capital, Apple , Dell , Seagate , Hoya Corp, SK Hynix and other companies. On September 28, 2017, the final acquisition was confirmed The price is $17.7 billion, but the transaction still faces legal challenges.

On June 4, 2018, Japan’s Sharp stated that it would acquire Toshiba’s personal computer business and issue US$1.8 billion of new shares to repurchase preferred shares from banks, highlighting the rapid recovery under Foxconn’s control.

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