Japan’s three major automakers: Toyota Motor Corporation(TM) (1933)

Toyota Motor Corporation (NYSE:TM) was founded in 1933 and is headquartered in Toyota City, Aichi Prefecture, Japan. It has 379,201 full-time employees. It is the world’s top three automakers and is currently the world’s number one automaker by sales. , The profit is also among the top; ranked 10th in the US “Fortune” magazine in the world’s top 500 companies in 2020, and is the core company of the Toyota Group .

Toyota Motor Corporation TM Logo

Toyota Motor Corporation (TM):

Toyota Motor Corporation was originally an automobile division established in September 1933 by the founder of Toyota Sakimoto’s “Toyota Auto Loom Works”. This proposal was made by Toyota Sakichi’s son, Toyota Kiichiro, but the first president was appointed by his son-in-law Toyota Risaburo. Through the use of casting and machining techniques used in the production of looms, after research, they finally started to manufacture automobiles in 1935. In 1937, the automobile department formally became independent, and “Toyota Motor Industry Co., Ltd.” (Tomata Motor Industry Co., Ltd.) was established. Toyota has received support from the Japanese government to ease the shortage of funds and materials at that time. Although Toyota was the main supplier of Japanese military vehicles during World War II, it was mainly engaged in the production of military trucks, but the map of the US military indicated “Toyota “Automobile factory” was obviously not listed as one of the important factories, so it was not attacked in the early stage. At the end of the war, in 1945, the US military originally planned to bomb and burn Toyota City on August 21. However, the Emperor Showa sent all of Japan to Japan on August 15. The broadcast announced an unconditional surrender, so Toyota’s plant survived.

Following the fiscal tightening policy implemented in 1950 after the Anti-Japanese War, the company fell into an operating crisis. Toyota Kiichiro resigned as president, as an emergency bank group headed by Imperial Bank (later Mitsui Bank, now Sumitomo Mitsui Banking) and Tokai Bank (later Union Bank of Japan, now Mitsubishi UFJ Bank) The conditions for financing led to the establishment of Toyota Motor Sales Co., Ltd. (Toyota Motor Sales Co., Ltd.), which focused on strengthening sales, and separated manufacturing and sales. Since then, the company has been in charge of production and development. “Toyota Motor Industry” was closely linked and worked simultaneously. However, in 1982, it finally merged again to become “Toyota Motor Co., Ltd.” (Toyota Motor Co., Ltd.). It is worth mentioning that Toyota also participated in the business crisis in 1950. , Mass production of trucks used by the U.S. military in the Korean War, and Toyota also entered the Greater China market in the first half of 1966. Toyota was the first capitalist country automobile company to enter China after 1949. Now in addition to selling imported cars in China, it is also in Tianjin. The joint venture plants in Chengdu and Guangzhou produce cars.

Toyota was mainly engaged in manufacturing textile machinery in the early days. The founder Kiichiro Toyota set up an automobile department at the Textile Machinery Works in 1933, thus beginning the history of Toyota Motor Corporation’s automobile manufacturing. In 1935, Toyota’s AI model was successfully trial-produced, and the automobile industry company was formally established the following year. However, the company developed slowly throughout the 1930s and 1940s, and it was only after World War II that Toyota Motor Corporation accelerated its pace of development. By introducing European and American technologies, under the guidance of American automotive technology experts and management experts, they quickly mastered advanced automobile production and management technologies, and based on the characteristics of the Japanese nation, they created the famous Toyota production management model and continued to implement them. Improvement and improvement have greatly improved the production efficiency of the factory and products. Automobiles flooded into the North American market in the late 1960s. In 1972, the company produced 10 million cars in total.

After the crisis of 1950, Toyota formally established production and management technologies like “improvement”, “Just-in-time production system” (kanban system) and Toyota production method, etc., and began to attach importance to sales, not relying solely on banks Financing, striving to replenish its own capital, has now become a lease-free business. Because Toyota’s internal reserves are quite sufficient, it is known as the “Toyota Bank”. According to the 2002 financial statements, Toyota was the first Japanese company to have a consolidated regular profit exceeding one trillion yen. In the 2004 settlement, it was also the first Japanese company’s linked net profit (based on US accounting standards) to exceed one trillion yen.

Toyota has been investing in quality management since the 1950s. For example, the interface conditions of the opening and closing parts such as the door and the tail compartment, and the sound insulation performance, etc., evaluate the quality of the parts that are easier for users to detect. On the one hand, Toyota continues to ponder the existing technology that is already very reliable, on the other hand, it is good at manufacturing relatively high-quality products at low cost, so its cars are often evaluated as low failure rates. On the other hand, compared with other automakers, Toyota is more cautious about the introduction of new technologies in the mechanical structure, so it is often criticized by outsiders as “following the trend”, “being cautious” and “just taking the best of others.” Looking at the second-generation Corona in 1960, Volkswagen criticized the fragility of its monocoque body and the unpopular diesel method. It can be seen that Toyota was responding strictly to the new technology developed by its customers. Influenced by experience.

After six years of research and development, the 700cc small Volkswagen was finally released in 1962. The first generation of Publica is a practical vehicle designed to completely achieve low prices and economy based on basic concepts. However, consumers continue to be suppressed by the mentality that “you have to buy it anyway, it doesn’t matter if it is expensive.” As a result, sales are sluggish. After analyzing the reasons for the sluggish sales, and installing luxury equipment such as radios and heaters, the sales figures have risen. Through this incident, the idea of ​​”Toyota’s 80-point Doctrine” came into being.

Tatsuo Hasegawa, the research director of the development and investigation of the first Corolla released in 1966, proposed the 80-point principle. It is pointed out that on the one hand, it is necessary to improve the degree of product completion. On the other hand, it is not only the pursuit of functions and performance that are superior to other manufacturers, but also the qualified goal of 80 points accepted by 10,000 people. After 80 points are exceeded, they can climb up to obtain more High scores will eventually lead to a balanced corporate philosophy in all aspects. Later, the 80-point doctrine evolved into the “80-point doctrine + Alpha”, which became a differentiated strategy for old cars and other companies. However, the word “80 points” has been criticized as arbitrariness, and repeatedly criticized by opponents as “imperfect, cutting corners to build cars.” As criticisms of the “80-point doctrine” have gradually surfaced, the Hilux minivan sold by Toyota in 1968 under the banner of “101-point doctrine.”

In the late 1970s, when small cars around the world were moving in the direction of front-wheel drive, Toyota introduced new models such as “Tercel Corsa” and improvements before launching the main front-wheel-drive models Corolla and Corona. Models other than the main models such as “Camry (Crown). Vista (View)” and other mid-size small cars. After getting customers’ responses through the introduction of the above models, it still continues to launch two models with different driving methods, which shows that its strategy is prudent. In addition, Yamaha (Yamaha) engine provides high-performance dual camshaft engine components, and Honda introduced the engine’s lean combustion system and exhaust gas purification system. Although Toyota has received assistance from other companies in the industry, it has been able to obtain advanced technology and Exhaust measures and other urgent needs, but Toyota tends to be able to improve the acquired technology, put it on its products and use its strength. Such as the development of a narrow-angle configuration multi-valve dual camshaft engine (High Mechanism Twincam) in order to improve combustion efficiency, and the installation of this product in a large number of vehicles that have been put into production.

In the unfavorable period after the 1990s, its business actions have also attracted attention. In the end, Toyota sold its production methods to other companies. However, on the other hand, its method of keeping the price down to a dime was criticized as “wringing out dry towels.” It strongly oppresses some contractual companies and large customers (such as iron manufacturers). , Was severely criticized. In addition, the negative news faced by Toyota in various places has attracted attention. For example, out of the 900 million yen needed to build the Toyota Chamber of Commerce and Industry, approximately 700 million yen was funded by Toyota City; the construction of the new headquarters building “Midland Square” in front of Nagoya Station also received a city redevelopment subsidy; The Gamagori Ocean Development (Laguna) project, which is responsible for all debt burdens, also forced Aichi Prefecture and Gamagori City to increase investment; the Haiyang Academy opened in the center of the project and sneaked away: first appraise scholarship winners before obtaining recognition, etc. The negative news that lacks sociality has attracted the attention of the society.

In the late 1990s, Toyota, which had not received much attention for a long time, also took the lead in popularizing the Intelligent Valuable Valve Timing Control (VVT-i) located in the engine. (The engine variable valve timing is a patented technology of Fiat, Italy, the engine variable valve lift is a patented technology of General Motors, and the continuously variable valve timing of the engine is a patented technology of Clemson University, California) Because the system can control the valve overlap angle by the electronic system according to the driving conditions. Therefore, most of Toyota’s car models can meet the low-emission vehicle standards set by the Japanese Ministry of Transport (the former Ministry of Transport). This system is actually the same system as Nissan’s NVCS and Mitsubishi’s MIVEC.

After the industry reorganization period in the 1990s, it is now generally developed jointly with the companies in the group. However, the design of new engines and models for small cars will be given to Daihatsu Industry, and the development of trucks will be given to Hino Motors. As for the development of fuel cell vehicles and environmentally friendly vehicles powered by gasoline and batteries, they will be co-operated with the Panasonic Group, which has a deep relationship with the supply of parts. In addition, Toyota has also participated in the world’s top Formula One racing and other motor sports; it has also devoted itself to the development and practical application of advanced technologies, such as fuel cell hybrid systems, and G-Book. G-Book Alpha and other automotive communication systems, etc., provide these technologies to other companies outside the group to delay opponents who do not understand the fundamental ideas of the network. Honda Motor Co., Ltd. has launched similar products in the market time and tried to save it. Business performance.

There is a huge test track in Shibetsu City, Hokkaido, and cars specially developed for snowy areas, as well as some products for overseas markets, showing its diversification.

Recently, however, popular models such as Corolla and Purse have encountered problems and need to be recycled. The main reason is that competition in the domestic automobile market in Japan has become fierce. In order to win the sales battle, Toyota and parts manufacturers have joined forces to cut costs and increase production efficiency in a planned way. One of the powerful methods is to no longer develop and use special parts for specific models, and instead make the parts common and suitable for each model. However, as a result, common parts and cars are excluded, so the number of recycling has increased significantly, which has become a problem.

In response to environmental protection and the oil crisis, Toyota took the lead in launching the prius in China in 1997, becoming the world’s first commercially available hybrid car. It was launched globally in 2000, creating the current mainstream direction of new energy vehicles.

Toyota Motor Corporation (TM) models on sale:

  1. FJ Cruiser—The appearance of FJ Cruiser is inherited from the SUV named FJ40. I believe Toyota fans will know this model very well. This car was launched in 1955 and has a history of more than 40 years. “SUV is a model with extremely streamlined interior equipment and a detachable hardtop. When the hardtop is removed, it becomes a Pick-Up. The exterior of the SUV is square and rigid, with almost no curves. It is similar to JEEP’s Wrangler. The Mercedes-Benz G-Class has a similar style.
  2. RAV4-the city four-wheel drive RAV4, with its stylish appearance and outstanding performance, swiftly shuttles through modern cities. No matter where it is, it perfectly reflects the unique taste and personality of the driver.
  3. CROWN Crown-CROWN Crown persistently pursues the initial ideal of building a car-the joy of galloping and the pleasure of handling, achieving a high level of driving performance.
  4. REIZ-no challenge, no fun.
  5. PRIUS-TOYOTA hybrid electric vehicle. PRIUS, as the world’s first mass-produced hybrid car, has achieved global sales of 500,000 vehicles. It has attracted the attention of the entire automotive industry and the fashion world. It is more worthy of being a technological pioneer and launching the future today.
  6. COROLLA-the new tenth generation COROLLA Corolla
  7. COROLLA-By the end of 2006, the cumulative global sales of more than 32 million vehicles, is the world’s single-brand cumulative sales champion. In 2005, it achieved global sales of 1.39 million vehicles and won the annual sales champion again.
  8. Vios
  9. LAND CRUISER land cruiser. It has three major weapons, the original A-TRC active traction control system, the unique Sky-Hook TEMS electronic control suspension system and the AHC effective height control suspension system to ensure that the vehicle remains excellent under various harsh and complex road conditions. The passability, stability and sensitivity of the LAND CRUISER land cruiser deserves its reputation (VX-R series standard).
  10. PRADO Prado (dominant)-unparalleled superior performance.
  11. COASTER-COASTER, born in the 1960s, has become synonymous with multi-purpose luxury cars with its complete commercial vehicle functions and leading technical performance.
  12. highlander Highlander-has a strong competitiveness in the high-end SUV models.
  13. PREVIA.
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